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29 Feb. 2016 

Johannesburg's journey from crime hotspot to hipster hangout

Johannesburg's makeover

Maboneng Precinct

Maboneng Precinct

Maboneng Precinct

Soweto Theater

Johannesburg's makeover

Ponte City

Ponte City

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

Downtown Johannesburg is getting a makeoverMaboneng Precinct is an urban regeneration project in central business districtOnce neglected Ponte City tower houses new apartments

Johannesburg, South Africa (CNN) -- In downtown Johannesburg -- once a no-go zone riddled with crime -- a young entrepreneur is sparking an urban restoration.

Property developer Jonathan Liebmann is busy rejuvenating the South African city's industrial heart after years of urban decay, with his Maboneng Precinct, on the east side of Johannesburg's central business district.

Maboneng -- meaning "place of light" in Sotho -- is now a mixed-zone neighborhood, full of shops, restaurants and residences, which comes alive at the weekend. And it could follow in the footsteps of London's trendy East End and the shabby-chic streets of Williamsburg in New York as Johannesburg's young middle class flood to the district.

Read more: Africa's tech cities and mega dams

Liebmann said: "The area has really transformed from being a rundown industrial area into being a new living and workspace for people looking for something alternative."

Liebmann and his team own 35 properties in the area and have developed 10 of those buildings since 2008.

"It's paid off financially, but it will pay off more in the medium to long term," he added.

The Maboneng Precinct's first project, called "Arts on Main" is a creative hub boasting an in-house restaurant, rooftop bar and an exhibition space as well as a studio for some of South Africa's most respected artists.

Read more: Fast-food giants target Africa

Prices for an apartment in Maboneng range anywhere from 280,000 rand ($28,500) to 3 million rand ($305,000), and Liebmann said that since he started buying up properties in Johannesburg, prices have sky-rocketed.

"Initially buildings were being bought for 100 euros a square meter," he said. "I think prices have tripled, but that still makes it very competitive when you compare it to the suburbs. There are still very good deals to be enjoyed."

But for seemingly low prices by Western standards, Maboneng still remains an aspirational area for many of the city's 3.8 million inhabitants.

Despite South Africa being the continent's largest economy, 23% of the population is below the poverty line.

Liebmann said that Maboneng's continued development will have a positive impact on Johannesburg, known as the "City of Gold," as other similar projects spring up around the city.

"There's always a knock-on effect," he said, "it's all coming together now in total regeneration."

Another company investing in Johannesburg real estate is Kempston Group. Originally a trucking company, today Kempston Group owns 100 commercial, industrial and farming properties around South Africa.

Read more: Liberia: From warzone to holiday paradise?

And the firm is now taking on a mammoth project to transform the notorious Ponte City skyscraper in the heart of Johannesburg.

When it was built in the 1970s, Ponte City was a desirable place to live. But having loomed over the city for nearly four decades, it became a symbol of the urban decay as the abandoned building fell victim to crime, drugs and prostitution toward the end of the last century.

When it was taken over in 2001, after years of neglect, five stories of discarded trash had to be removed as the building's rejuvenation took place.

Kempston Group founder Tony Cotterell, who is overseeing the renovation, explained: "We bought in large conveyer belts with earth-moving equipment and we started moving it out."

The group has invested tens of millions of dollars into the project and has already finished renovating the residential floors. Cotterell says all of the 500 apartments currently in Ponte are occupied.

"What we're creating is an environment where people can feel safe," said Cotterell. "It's a big change from where it was 15 years ago. I think the whole of Johannesburg is starting to change as well."

CNN's Oliver Joy contributed to this report.

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/04/business/johannesburgs-crime-hotspot-transformed/
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29 Feb. 2016 

'Vaginal seeding' for C-section babies ill-advised: experts



Known as "vaginal seeding", the treatment is given to compensate for the lack of exposure to natural, beneficial microbes found in the vaginal tract and thought to boost the health of the infant.



Previous studies have shown that caesarean delivery is linked to a modest increase in the risk of obesity, asthma and some autoimmune diseases.

But it is still uncertain whether swabbing C-section babies with the mother's vaginal secretions offers protection, the experts noted in the medical journal BMJ.

"There is simply no evidence to suggest it has benefits -- and it may carry potential risks," lead author Aubrey Cunnington, a researcher in the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London, said in a statement.

The potential downside, she said in the editorial, is the transfer of harmful bacteria that provoke no symptoms in the mother, thus going undetected, or for which she may not have been tested.

These include B streptococcus, the most common cause of severe neonatal infections, along with herpes or gonococcus, the bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea.

"These pathogens would probably also be transferred on a vaginal swab," the authors cautioned.

Many countries, including Britain, do not routinely screen all women for these dangerous bacteria in pregnancy, the editorial noted.

In many developed countries, more than a quarter of babies are now delivered by caesarean section.

A study published earlier this month in Nature Medicine reported on a clinical trial in which doctors swabbed C-section newborns with fluids from the mother's vagina.



Monitoring the infants for 30 days, the researchers found that they had some, but not all, of the bacteria -- collectively known as the microbiota -- that would have been present had they been born naturally.



The study drew no conclusions, however, on long-term health benefits.

The microbiota is the community of microbes that colonises our bodies, outnumbering our own cells by 10 to one. It varies across different parts of the body, and form one person to another.

Interest among researchers and doctors has surged in the potential for manipulating the microbiota to promote health and treat disease.

http://www.timeslive.co.za/lifestyle/2016/02/24/Vaginal-seeding-for-C-section-babies-ill-advised-experts

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28 Feb. 2016 

South Africa plans platinum economic zone

9 February 2016With 70% of platinum being produced in South Africa, the government is working towards opening a new industry-based special economic zone in North West, to look into beneficiation.This is according to Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies, who participated in an investment dialogue held under the theme "Driving competitiveness and ensuring growth and stability", hosted by Brand South Africa, at the Mining Indaba in Cape Town, yesterday.#Davies says a Platinum based Special Economic Zone will be declared before the end of 2016.



the dti (@the_dti) February 8, 2016The restructuring of the Chinese economy had led to its growth slowing down, which had resulted in a slump in the prices of commodity such as gold, platinum, iron ore and coal. This had affected many markets, including South Africa, a producer and exporter of minerals.After the slump, South Africa could no longer afford to see itself just as a producer and exporter of mineral resources, Davies said. The special economic zone board would soon make a recommendation on the exact location of the zone.Minister Davies assessing some of the mining products at the 2016 Investing in African Mining Indaba. pic.twitter.com/zEZC0RnkNh

the dti (@the_dti) February 9, 2016"We are supporting quite a number of our projects. There is quite a lot of work that has been done in the country already. The Department of Science and Technology has been rolling out fuel cell-driven small generators to outlying areas to supply schools, clinics and all that."The Chamber of Mines launched a fuel-cell driven generator in its own building in Johannesburg," he said."We will be, in the course of this year, supporting projects. We will be rolling out a special economic zone in North West that is dedicated to the platinum value chain with the expectation that fuel cell technology will come in."While he could not say when commodity prices were expected to recover, the minister said instead of waiting for another commodity boom, South Africa needed to look at beneficiation to find new uses for platinum products."I think it means that we shouldnt put all our eggs in one basket sitting around and waiting, hoping that there is a bounce back in mineral prices. If your existing customers are buying less of your product, and they are paying less for it, the smart thing to do, among other things, is to seek new uses for your product."He had been engaging with the platinum industry, Davies said, and all stakeholders were in agreement that there was a need to support the beneficiation of platinum and to find more uses for the product and to create industries around it.The soon-to-be-established special economic zone would come with several benefits and investors would have the advantage of getting a tax rate of 15% as opposed to the 28% that was currently on offer. "So we are looking to establish an industry-based special economic zone there. There are actually some others in other provinces that are under consideration."What we need to do is establish a set of industries that make use of that platinum, generate long-term uses of it and fuel cell industries are taking off around the world and we as South Africa are looking to get our niche in particular products of particular manufacturing industries off that and will assist in creating a new demand for this mineral and create more opportunities for us to make use of the resource."Small businessMeanwhile, the Department of Trade and Industry is supporting 15 small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) in the mining sector to show their products and services at the Investing in African Mining Indaba.The department said a national pavilion had been set up, in partnership with the Department of Mineral Resources and Brand South Africa, at the indaba. The SMMEs hail from different parts of the country and will be given opportunities to meet with prospective buyers and investors.Davies said the decision to collaborate with other government departments was motivated by the fact that the Mining Indaba was a global event that provided an international perspective on African mining. It was an opportunity for the government to help the private sector."The Mining Indaba is a big marketing opportunity for South Africa to highlight the investment opportunities in this sector. Despite the current cyclical downturn in the mining industry, South Africa by virtue of it being a leading country with reserves in a number of key commodities remains an extremely attractive mining investment destination and has opportunities for the whole value chain."The Mining Indaba ends on 11 February.Source: South African Government News Agency

http://www.southafrica.info/news/conferences/platinum-economic-zone-090216.htm

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28 Feb. 2016 

Petroleum | Refinery | Worldwide Events | Australia | USA | Europe | Asia | Middle East | 2016

OMICS International Conferences invites all the participants across the globe to attend the World Congress on Petroleum- 2016 during July 21-23, 2016 at Brisbane, Australia that includes prompt keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitions.

Petroleum- 2016conference is organized with the theme Emerging technologies and challenges in petroleum and refinery industry". OMICS International organizes aconference seriesof 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 300+ Conferences, 500+ Upcoming and Previous Symposiums and Workshops in USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientificsocietiesand publishes 700+Open access journals which contains over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

1.Oil Production

A mixture ofhydrocarbonsthat exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include

Small amounts of hydrocarbonsthat exist ingaseousphase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered fromoilwell (casing head) gas in lease separators and are subsequently coming led with thecrude streamwithout being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid fromnatural gaswells in lease or fieldseparation facilitiesand later mixed into the crude stream is also included;

Small amounts of non-hydrocarbons produced with theoil, such as sulphur and various metals;

Drip gases, andliquid hydrocarbonsproduced from tar sands,oil sands, Gilsonite, andoil shale.

Liquids produced atnatural gasprocessing plants are excluded.Crude oilis refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils;gasoline, diesel and jet fuels;lubricants; asphalt;ethane, propane, andbutane; and many other products used for their energy orchemicalcontent.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas, November 2-3, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey; 5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand Petroleum Industry, Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE; 17th annual conference of the International Association for MathematicalGeosciences Freiberg, Germany. 05 September 2015 to 13 September 2015;PetroleumGeostatistics2015 Biarritz, France 7-11 September 2015; American Association ofPetroleumGeologistsInternational Conference and Exhibition 2015.Melbourne, Australia. 13-16 September 2015; WMESS 2015 The World MultidisciplinaryEarth SciencesSymposium Prague, Czech Republic 07-11 September 2015; The Fourth International Conference onFaultandTop Seals. Almeria, Spain. 20-24 September 2015.

2.Drilling

Drilling is uniquemechanicalandhydraulicallyprocess that definesdrilling rigconstruction andenergy transmission. Expertise and leadingdrillingtechnologies support every phase of well design, planning, and operations. The scope encompasses offset well analysis and design of the well, BHA, fluids systems, and data acquisition program through to drilling performance monitoring and optimization in real time. Maximize the benefits of surface measurements via sophisticatedmodeling technologiesto monitor drilling performance, improving performance through decisions made in real time. Remotely located drilling experts provide additional support 24/7. Further optimize the interaction between the downhole drilling system and the subsurface through independent drilling automation modules available for selected drilling processes.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; The 22nd Annual IndiaOilandGasReview Summit and International Exhibition, at hotel Star, Mumbai India,09-10 September, 2015;PEFTECConference Exhibition and seminars, at Antwerp, Belgium, 18th -19th November 2015; QueenslandGas, South Bank, Australia, 24th -25th November 2015; 4th Annual Small-Scale LNG Forum, Antwerp, Belgium 26-26 November 2015.

3. Petroleum Engineering

Petroleum engineeringprocessesare thechemical processesand other facilities used in petroleum refineries(also referred to asoil refineries) to transformcrudeoilinto useful products such as liquefiedpetroleumgas(LPG),gasolineor petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, dieseloiland fuel oils.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Miami, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; IPTC Ninth InternationalPetroleum TechnologyConference Doha, Qatar 06-09 December 2015; North Africa DownstreamSummit 2015 ,Algiers, Algeria. 07-08 December 2015; North AfricaOilandGasSummit 2015, Algiers, Algeria. 07-09 December 2015;OilandGasNon-Metallic 2015, London, United Kingdom. 08-10 December 2015; Training-ElectricalandInstrumentationEngineering forOilandGasFacilities, Midrand, South Africa. 08- 09 October 2015.

4. Catalytic Cracking

Catalytic crackingprocess was developed in1920 by Eugene Houdry for up gradation of residue was commercialized latter in 1930. Houdry process was based on cyclic fixed bed configuration. There has been continuous up gradation in catalytic cracking process from its incept offixed bed technologyto latterfluidized bed catalytic cracking(FCC).The feed stock for catalytic cracking is normally light gas oil from vacuum distillation column. Catalytic cracking cracks low value high molecular weighthydrocarbonsto more value added products (low molecular weight) likegasoline, LPGDieselalong with very importantpetrochemicalfeedstock like propylene, C4 gases like isobutylene, Isobutene, butane and butane.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE; PCIC 2016 2016 IEEEPetroleumandChemicalIndustry Technical Conference, Philadelphia, PA, United States,26 September 2015 -01 October 2015; American Association ofPetroleum GeologistsInternational Conference and Exhibition 2017, London, United Kingdom. 3-6 April 2016; Association ofPetroleumGeologists Annual Convention and Exhibition 2017 Houston, United States. 2-5 April 2017; Association ofpetroleum Geologists Annual Convention and Exhibition 2018, Salt lake City, United States. 20-23 May 2018.

5. Storage and Spilling

It includesOilfield equipments,Carboncapture utilization and storage, Infrastructure challenges. An act providing for the regulation ofstorage tanksand tank facilities; imposing additional powers and duties on the Department ofEnvironmentalResources and theEnvironmental QualityBoard; and making an appropriation, further providing for definitions and for aboveground storage tank requirements; and providing for a feasibility study. Storage tank facility, One or more stationary tanks, including any associated intrafacility pipelines, fixtures, monitoring devices and other equipment. A facility may include aboveground tanks, underground tanks or a combination of both. For the purposes of this act, the associated intrafacilitypipelines, fixtures, monitoring devices and other equipment for an aboveground storage tank shall be that which lies within the emergency containment area.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; 2nd EAGE Workshop on High Performance Computing forUpstream; Dubai, United Arab Emirates 13-16 September 2015; International Conference onFaultandTop Seals. Almeria, Spain.20-24 September 2015; AIG-11 Applied IsotopeGeochemistryConference; Orleans, France. 21st to 25th September 2015; Fourth International Conference onFaultandtop Sealsart or Science ; Almeria, Spain.20-24 September 2015; 8thPetroleumGeologyof Northwest Europe Conference 2015,London, United Kingdom. 28th -30th September 2015;OilandGasNon-Metallic 2015 London, United Kingdom. 08-10 December 2015.

6. Transportation

Crude oilexports, Piping engineering, Routeoptimization, Fossil fuel survey technology, Domestic Transport of Oil, International Transport of Crude Oil,Crude OilTrade Routes, Transport and Logistics as a component ofOil Production Costs, Logistics chain analysis ofOil Productionand distribution. Pipelines includes both long distance inter and intrastate transmissions systems and the local or regional gathering systems which aggregate production for delivery into the common carrier transmission systems. The assessment of the gathering system directcapital investmentcontains the group of assets typically found in the direct vicinity of the production well. This includes both the collection pipelines and associated pumping and compression facilities, and also supporting assets necessary to stabilize, condition, and perform bulk separation from the as produced hydrocarbons.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; SPE Environmental Stewardship inOilandGasSPE Heavy Oil Lifting Recovery to the Next Level ; Budapest, Hungary. 22-23 September 2015;IOGCCAnnual Conference,Oklahoma City, United States 28-30 September 2015; SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,Houston, TX, United States 28-30 September 2015;APOGCEconference, Bali, Indonesia. 20-22 October 2015; Environmental Stewardship inOilandGas Development Workshop, Galveston, Texas, USA. 27-29 October 2015;Pipe Coating- AMIs Pipeline Coating 2016 Vienna, Austria 16-18 February 2016

7. Oil Prices

Whatever progressoil hatersandalternative energysources would like to have on worldoildemand, the price collapse is working. Demand for oil is supposed to increase by 1.5 million b/d in 2015 and 1.7 million b/d in 2016, up significantly from earlier estimates. This is driven partially byindustrializationand partly by lower prices U.S .gasolinedemand is rising, as is the demand for bigger vehicles such as light trucks and SUVs.

The issue has been supply and the production surplus; the spread betweensupplyanddemand. Over this one-year period, supply has grown by 2.14 million b/d globally even though the price has been falling. As the surplus has increased, the price has gone in the opposite direction, with the exception of this year. However, this price-rise anomaly has since repaired itself.

Years of massive investments in newoil suppliesclearly dont shut off overnight, particularly if those projects have already seen companies invest billions of dollars and are on the home stretch of completion. Such is the case for Canadasoil sands, which will add some 800,000 b/d in new production in the next three years, although green field projects have ground to a halt. The Gulf of Mexico and other long-term offshore development still have projects nearing or at the completion stage which will also add to future supply, regardless of current market conditions.

But what can be stopped, because it doesnt make economic sense, has been cancelled or delayed. Tens of billions of future capital spending is on hold. Many producers are scaling back budgets further as prices remain stubbornly low.Conventional drillingin North America is the most responsive to price in either direction. The major decline in the Canadian and U.S. rig count is well known.

OPEC, which the worlds privately-ownedoil industryhas counted upon to maintain some stability in world oil marketsfor over 40 years, remains unpredictable. OPEC, which has an official quota of 30 million b/d, no longer even talks about enforcement as it pumps close to 32 million b/d, with Iran ready to add more. Less affluent OPEC members have been asking for cooperation and even talking to the Russians, but the low-cost Persian Gulf producers are staying the course, at least for now.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; SPEOffshoreEurope Conference, Aberdeen, Scotland. 5-7 September 2015; APPEA, Health,Safetyand EnvironmentConference, Perth, Western Australia 7-9 September 2015; AfricaOilandGasEXPO, Johannesburg 8-9 September 2015;PIRANew York Annual Conference, New York City, United States.8-9 October 2015; OPITOSafetyand Competence Conference 2015 , Dusit Thani Hotel, Abu Dhabi. 03 November 2015; North AfricaOilandGasSummit 2015, Algiers, Algeria. 7-9 December 2015.

8. Sustainable Usage

Alternative renewable sourcesfeedstock,Stack holderengagement,energy efficiencyAs one of the principles of sustainabilitymanagementand reporting, materiality helps pinpoint issues that are important to the company, to manage critical aspects, to set goals and action plans, and to prioritize the subjects that are of interest to the stakeholders.Sustainabilityof a business depends on identifying and being in line with thestakeholders expectations and hence it is essential for us to conduct materiality analysis which helps us prioritize these myriad expectations of our stakeholders and focus our report on them.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; Spring Meeting and Global Congress onProcess Safety, Houston, United States. 26-30 April 2015;Euro membraneConference 2015, Kreisfreie Stadt Aachen, Germany. 6 September 2015 to 10th September 2015;BiorefineryI.Chemicalsand Materials From Thermo-ChemicalsBiomassConversion and Related processes; Chania(Crete), Greece.27 September 2015 to 2 October 2015; 10th Conference onSustainable Developmentof energy,WaterandEnvironment Systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia. 27th September 2015 to 3rd October 2015; Integrated ContinuousBiomanufacturing II; Berkeley, California, United States. November 1-5, 2015.

9. Safety

Precautions inOilandGasIndustry,Safetyinpetroleumrefineries,Safetymeasures in drilling, Occupational and residential challenges, Environmental framework and regulation, Quality check and quality assurance The insinuation of implementing anoccupational SafetyandHealth ManagementSystem at all workplaces came into limelight, when Global Strategy on Occupational Safety and Health Conclusions were adopted by the International Labor Conference at its 91st session, 2003. The Strategy advocates the application of a systems approach to themanagementof national OSH systems. Also, Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001) provide national/organizational framework for occupational Safety and Health Management Systems. As per these guidelines, theOSH managementsystem should contain the main elements of policy, organizing,planningandimplementation,evaluationand action for improvement.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.; XVI European Conference onSoil MechanicsandGeotechnical Engineering, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 13 -17 September 2015;IADCAsset Integrity and Reliability, Houston, Texas, USA. 16-17 September 2015; 10th Annual AssetIntegrity ManagementAberdeen 2015 Scotland, United kingdom, 29-30 September 2015; 4thStructural Integrity ManagementSouth Deeside Road Blairs ab125yp aberdeen - united kingdom 10-11 November 2015;Asset Integrity Management, Dusit Thane Lakeview Cairo, Cairo , Egypt, 23-25 November 2015

10. Petroleum IndustriesandManagement

It includes InternationalOil Markets, Energy Economics, Capital Cost Estimation, Factors that affectProfitability, Cash Flow, Depletion,Depreciation, Affiliation, New technologies that depletespetroleumcost.Petroleum explorationandproductioneconomicscenter on the size and nature of oil and gas reserves in relation to oil and gas prices. A Process Economics said to have two key assets

Its people and their ability to profitably find (or acquire), develop, and produce oil and gas reserves and

Its existing reserves and their ability, when produced, to generate positive cash flow.

The ability to apply new technology (such as 3D seismic, horizontal drilling, deep waterdrillingandproduction techniquesand global internet knowledge sharing) will be key tomanaging risksand adding billions in reserve value for the industry in the coming decade. Managements appreciate that trueexplorationsuccess is not measured by the success ratio, i.e., the number of producible wells to total wells drilled. A ten-well program with discovery of a single large reservoir may be far more profitable than a ten-well program discovering five marginallyeconomicreservoirs. Nor is exploration success truly measured by the quantity of reserves found. In many remote parts of the world, large quantities ofgas reserveshave been found that have relatively limited value because transportation costs to gas markets are so high.

Related Conferences:

2ndInternational Conference onGeology, Dubai, UAE, 21-22 April 2016; 3rdGlobalGeologistsAnnual Meeting, Brisbane, Australia; July 11-12, 2016; International Conference onGeosciences, 6-7 October 2016, Orlando, USA; 2ndInternational Conference and Expo onOilandGas,November 3-5, 2016atIstanbul, Turkey;5th International Conference onPetroleum Geologyand PetroleumIndustry,Nov 24-25, 2016 Dubai, UAE.;MEPECconference ; Bahrain, Saudi Arabia 15-17 September 2015;SIEWConference ; Marina Bay Sands; Singapore 26 -30 October 2015; 22nd AfricaOilWeek , Cape town , South Africa 27-30 October 2015; Abu Dhabi internationalPetroleumExhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE 09-12 November 2015; 18th International Conference and Exhibition onLNG; Perth, Western Australia. 11-15 April 2016.

11.Entrepreneurs Investment Meet: Petroleum- 2016 facilitates a unique platform for transforming potential ideas into great business. The meeting creates a global platform aimed to connect global Entrepreneurs, Proposers and the Investors in the field of Petroleum, oil and gas and its allied sciences to develop and facilitate the most optimized and viable business for engaging people in to constructive discussions, evaluation and execution of promising business.



OMICS International Conferences invites all the participants across the globe to attend the World Congress on Petroleum- 2016 during July 21-23, 2016 at Brisbane, Australia that includes prompt keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitions.

Petroleum- 2016 conference is organised with the theme Emerging technologies and challenges in petroleum and refinery industry". OMICS International organizes a conference series of 1000+ Global Events inclusive of 300+ Conferences, 500+ Upcoming and Previous Symposiums and Workshops in USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and publishes 700+ Open access journals which contains over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Petroleum Refinery: Petroleum refining process is a inimitable and crucial step in the petroleum production process from the wellhead to the pump. The main economic objective in refining is to maximize the value addition in converting crude oil into finished products. Refining process adds value to crude oil. Petroleum refineries are large, capital-intensive manufacturing facilities with extremely complex processing schemes. They convert crude oils and other input streams into dozens of refined co-products. Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), Gasoline, Jet fuel, kerosene, diesel, lubricating oils and waxes, fuel oils, asphalt etc are some of the co products obtained during petroleum refinery process. Among these transportation fuels have the highest value; fuel oils and asphalt the lowest value.

Why to attend???

This is your best opportunity to reach the largest assemblage of participants from the Petroleum, Oil and Gas community. It provides a premier technical forum for reporting and learning about the latest research and development, as well as for launching new applications and technologies and the effectiveness of various regulatory programs towards Petroleum- 2016. Conduct presentations, distribute information, meet with current and potential scientists, and receive name recognition at this 3-day event. World-renowned speakers, the most recent techniques, developments, and the newest updates in Petroleum- 2016 are hallmarks of this conference.

Our aim is to aggregate Petroleum, Oil and Gas community and to create a platform for robust exchange of information on technological advances, new scientific achievements and the effectiveness of various regulatory programs towards Petroleum- 2016. It provides a premier technical forum for reporting and learning about the latest research and development, as well as for launching new applications and technologies.

Target Audience:

Petroleum Scientists

Petroleum Engineers

Professors and Students from Academia

Geophysicists

Geologists and Geo Scientists

Oil and Gas Experts

Petroleum Associations and Societies

Oil and Gas Associations

Business Entrepreneurs



About Conference:

Welcome to world congress on Petroleum and Refinery from July 21-23, 2016 at Brisbane, Australia. Petroleum and Refinery has been themed Emerging technologies and challenges in petroleum and refinery industry which extensively covers all aspects on scientific and technical advances in the field of Petroleum and Refinery ranging from the integration of instruments, methodologies and technologies to their use in Petroleum Engineering, Refining Technology and other Drilling Services.

The organizing committee is gearing up for an exciting and informative conference program including plenary lectures, symposia, workshops on a variety of topics, poster presentations and various programs for participants from all over the world. We invite you to join us at thePetroleum and Refinery 2016,where you will be sure to have a meaningful experience with scholars from around the world.

For more details please visit-http://petroleum.omicsgroup.com/

Summary:

Petroleum-2016 welcomes attendees, presenters, and exhibitors from all over the world toBrisbane, Australia. We are delighted to invite you all to attend and register for theWorld Congress on Petroleum and Refinery (Petroleum-2016)which is going to be held during July 21 - 23, 2016 at Brisbane, Australia.

The organizing committee is gearing up for an exciting and informative conference program including plenary lectures, symposia, workshops on a variety of topics, poster presentations and various programs for participants from all over the world. We invite you to join us at thePetroleum-2016,where you will be sure to have a meaningful experience with scholars from around the world. All members of the Petroleum-2016 organizing committee look forward to meeting you in Brisbane, Australia.

For more details please visit-http://petroleum.omicsgroup.com/



Importance and Scope:

Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. There are most probably no two refineries that are identical in every respect. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) per day of crude oil.

Petroleum engineering is ideally the science of exploration and extraction of petroleum based hydrocarbons like crude oil, natural gas and other energy forms from the earth for economic purposes. Petroleum engineering can only be undertaken through the design, drilling and successful operation of the wells and their systems.

Target Audience: For World Congress on Petroleum and Refinery Conferences:

1. Engineers who are specialized on the particular topics like Petroleum Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Geophysicists, Geologists (To Present Their case reports and to update their Knowledge at the conference)

2. Crude Oil Explorators, Refinery professionals, and Safety Professionals who are related to that topics.

3. Drilling and Refinery designing are the Potential Exhibitors for the Respective Conferences.

4. Petroleum associations, Drilling association, OSHA organisation.

5. Students and Delegates

Petroleum and Refinery Market analysis:

The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). Petroleum (oil) is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category.

Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is of importance to the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, and thus is a critical concern for many nations. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the worlds energy consumption, ranging from a low of 32% for Europe and Asia, to a high of 53% for the Middle East.

Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America (44%), Africa (41%), and North America (40%). The world consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km) of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers. The United States consumed 25% of the oil produced in 2007. The production, distribution, refining, and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the world's largest industry in terms of dollar value.

During the period of 2009-2014, the global petroleum market has generated about $5 trillion in revenue and has posted a strong growth of 11.9%. During the same period the U.S market generated $730 billion in revenue and has generated a growth of 7.6%. According to a survey the projected oil demand of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is expected to increase from 9.5 million barrel per day in 2015 to 11.9 million barrels per day in 2035.

Snapshot of Australian Petroleum Market:

Australia's local oil refineries constantly compete with imported petroleum products from large highly efficient refineries in Asia, regardless of the cost of importing and refining crude oil. Consequently, the price of petrol at Australian refineries is based on international petrol prices. If local prices were higher than international prices, imports of petrol would displace local production. The Australian refining sector is a price taker. Domestic prices are closely linked to relevant international prices. The Singapore benchmark price of petrol (MOPS95 Petrol) is the key price benchmark for petrol in Australia. MOPS95 Petrol plus shipping costs and Australian taxes represents almost the entire wholesale price of petrol (around 95%). According to APPEA, Australia is a world leader in LNG innovation. The worlds first coal seam gas-to-LNG projects are being developed in Queensland. Australia also seems likely to become the first country in the world to host a floating LNG project

Top 15 largest world oil companies by reserves and production are Saudi Aramco, NIOC, Qatar Petroleum, ExxonMobil, PetroChina, PDVSA, BP, ADNOC, Royal Dutch Shell, Pemex, NNPC, Chevron, NOC, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Sonatrach.

International companies that have a market share in upstream sector are:

BG Group

BHP Billiton

ConocoPhillips

Chevron

Eni

ExxonMobil

OMV

Hess Ltd

Marathon Oil

Total

Tullow Oil

First Texas Energy Corp

The midstream sector is dominated by a number of companies that specialize in gathering, processing, transportation, storage and technological application services. Midstream companies include:

Aux Sable

Bridger Group

DCP Midstream

Enbridge Energy Partners

Enterprise Products Partners

Genesis Energy

Gibson Energy

Inergy Midstream

Kinder Morgan Energy Partners

Oneok Partners

Plains All American

Sunoco Logistics

Targa Midstream Services

TransCanada

Williams Companies

Petroleum (crude oil) exploration and production companies: There are around 200 companies globally with 12 companies in Africa, 54 companies in Asia, 63 companies in Europe, 6 companies in Oceania, 45 companies in North America and 13 companies in South America.

Major Oil and Gas Companies in Australia:

Many of the worlds largest oil & gas exploration and production companies have representation in Australia. Apache Corporation, Arrow Energy, Australian Worldwide Exploration Ltd, Bass Strait Oil Company Ltd, Beach Petroleum Ltd, BHP Billiton Petroleum, Carnarvon Petroleum Ltd, Chevron Australia, ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd, Cue Energy Resources Ltd, Eni, ExxonMobil Australia (Esso), INPEX, Magellan Petroleum Australia, Metgasco Limited, Mosaic Oil, Nido Petroleum Limited, Oil Search Limited, OMV Australia Pty Ltd, Origin Energy, QGC, ROC Oil Company, Santos Limited, Senex Energy Limited, Shell in Australia, Strike Energy, Stuart Petroleum Limited, Tap Oil Limited, Total in Australia, Tri-Star Petroleum, Woodside Energy Limited.

Top 10 Universities which offer Petroleum Engineering:

1. Texas A&M University

2. University Of Adelaide

3. University Of New South Wales

4. Colorado School Of Mines

5. University Of Manchester

6. University Of Texas

7. The University Of Stavanger

8. Curtin University

9. Universiti Teknologi Petronas

10. Heriot-Watt University

Global Petroleum Associations:

1. American Association of Petroleum Geologists

2. American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers

3. Australian Institute of Petroleum

4. Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association

5. Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors

6. Canadian Association Of Petroleum Producers

7. Canadian Heavy Oil Association

8. Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum

9. Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists

10. Denver Region Exploration Geologists' Society

11. Independent Petroleum Association of America

12. Japanese Association for Petroleum Technology

Professional and Industry Associations in Australia

The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

The Australian Petroleum Production & Exploration Association Ltd (APPEA)

The Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia (PESA)

Engineers Australia

Why Brisbane?

Brisbane has been ranked as more beautiful than Kyoto, Seville, Rio de Janeiro and astoundingly Sydney in a social media poll by travel guide company Rough Guides.

Its official and its global. Brisbane has been named 25th in the Monocle Magazine index of the worlds top liveable cities. The poll, which took its votes from Twitter and Facebook, rated Brisbane and Sydney as the eighth and thirteenth most beautiful cities in the world respectively.

"(Brisbane) has been chosen for its winning combination of high-rise modern architecture, lush green spaces and the enormous Brisbane River that snakes its way through the centre before emptying itself into the azure Moreton Bay,"

The good drum on Brisbane is our fine subtropical climate; our 2792 hours of sunshine a year; our 44 book shops; and our leafy parks with their 906 council-operated barbecues. And then theres Brisbanes low cost of living in comparison to other Australian cities; a spacious inner city environment; our multiculturalism; our thriving restaurants and cafes; unique architecture; outdoor lifestyle; and an efficient network of ferry, train and bus lines that link the citys sprawling suburbs to the CBD.

Why to attend???

With members from around the world focused on learning about Petroleum and Refinery; this is your single best opportunity to reach the largest assemblage of participants from the global petroleum sector. Conduct demonstrations, distribute information, meet with current and potential customers, make a splash with a new product line, and receive name recognition at this 3-day event.

World-renowned speakers, the most recent techniques, tactics, and the newest updates in the field of petroleum and refinery are hallmarks of this conference.

For more details please click here.

Earth Science-2015

Thanks to all our wonderful speakers, conference attendees contributed for the success of 4thInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change organized by OMICS International. Congratulations for the tremendous job.

With the trail of the success of our previous conference, OMICS International hosted the 4thInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change during June 16-18, 2015 at Melia Alicante, Spain with the theme An Insight into the Recent Advancements in Geosciences and Climate Change Control which was a great success where eminent keynote speakers from various reputed organizations with their resplendent presence addressed the gathering.

With the enormous feedback and burgeoning response from the participants from Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy, France, Greece, Poland, Russia, United Kingdom, USA, China, Korea, Taiwan, Turkey, Egypt, India, Nigeria and many, we OMICS International is glad to announce the commencement of 5thInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change during July 25-27, 2016 at Bangkok, Thailand.

The conference proceedings were carried out through various Scientific-sessions and plenary lectures. Also the conference was featured with Workshops.

Workshop on: "Wildland Fires and Climate Change by Prof. Jaime Senabre, SINIF, Spain Workshop on: Support of the Earth Science to BGD (Blue Green Dream) city planning innovations, Prof. Cedo Maksimovic, Blue Green Dream London, UK Workshop on: "Heliogerontology at the epoch of cosmoplanetary and climate changes by Prof Alexander Trofimov, ISRICA, Russia

Earth Science-2015 Organizing Committee would like to thank the Moderator of the conference, Jose Sanchez del Rio Saez, Rey Juan Carlos University, Spain who contributed a major part for the smooth functioning and success of this event. OMICS International would like to convey a warm gratitude to all Honorable guests and Keynote Speakers of Earth Science 2015: Alexander Trofimov, ISRICA, Russia, Jaime Senabre, SINIF, Spain and Cedo Maksimovic, Imperial Colleage of London, UK.

With the enormous feedback and promising response from the participants and supporters of Earth Science 2015, OMICS International is glad to announce the commencement of 5thInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change during July 25-27, 2016 at Bangkok, Thailand. We welcome all the eminent researchers, students and delegate participants to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of Earth Science and Climate change.

Past ReportsProceedingsGallery Earth Science-2014

Earth Science-2014 Report

OMICS Group Conferencessuccessfully hosted its premier3rdInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Changeduring July 28-30, 2014 at DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel San Francisco Airport, San Francisco, USA.

The conference brought together a broad spectrum of the earth science education community, educators from research universities with their programs and state colleges from across the world, as well as representatives from industry and professional geosciences societies.

This3rdInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Changewas based on the theme An Insight into the Recent Advancements in Geosciences and Climate Change Control which covered the below scientific sessions:

Geosciences and Geology Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Climate Change and Extreme Weather Technologies and Applications of Earth Science Global Warming and Environmental Change Environmental and Marine Sciences Environmental Calamity and Hazards Environmental Management Current Approaches in Environmental Studies Effect of Climate Change on Ecosystem

The conference was greeted by the conference moderatorAbel E Navarro, City University of New York, USA. The support was extended by the honorable guestAlexander Trofimov,International Scientific Research Institute of Cosmic Anthropoecology, Russia;Elena Lioubimtseva,Grand Valley State University, USA;Leiming Zhang, Environment Canada, Canada and energized by Keynote presentations:

Helio-protective water for the biosphere and humanity at geomagnetic deprivation, byAlexander Trofimov, International Scientific c Research Institute of Cosmic Anthropoecology, Russia. Understanding and measuring human vulnerability to climate change byElena Lioubimtseva, Grand Valley State University, USA. Overview of dry and wet removal algorithms byLeiming Zhang,Environment Canada, Canada.

OMICS GroupInternational acknowledges the support of below Chairs and Co-chairs with whom we were able to run the scientific sessions smoothly it included:Alexander Trofimov, International Scientific-Research Institute of Cosmic Anthropoecology, Russia,Suren Kulshreshtha, University of Saskatchewan, Canada;Leiming Zhang, Environment Canada, Canada;Jan Cermak, Mendel University, Czech Republic;Abel Navarro, City university of New York, USA;Elena Lioubimtseva, Grand Valley State University, USA;Douglas Leaffer, Framingham State University, USA;Carlos Gonzalez, University of Florida, USA;John P. Abraham, University of St. Thomas, USA;Thomas Sonnleitner, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, USA andJohn J. Sansalone, University of Florida, USA



Pre-ConferenceWorkshops was also held for the Earth Science-2014 which is being highlighted below:

Helio protective water as the chance for the survival of the biosphere and humanity at the conditions of the global geomagnetic deprivation byAlexander Trofimov, ISRICA, Russia. New Trends in Biotechnology: Theory and Applications byAbel Navarro,City University of New York, USA.

Workshop was also held at the Conference venue which is also being highlighted:

Workshop on "Climate Change Curriculum Development" byElena Lioubimtseva,Grand Valley State University, USA Workshop on "Measurement of the whole tree absorptive root area by the impedance method and spatial distribution of root water supply via multi-point sap flow patterns" byJan Cermak,Mendel University, Czech Republic. Workshops on Data Collection, Analysis and Application of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury byLeiming Zhang,Environment Canada, Canada. Energized by oral presentations and informed by panel discussions, the participants spent most of the 2 days in small breakout sessions discussing a series of questions. The results of these sessions were presented to the entire group for discussion and are summarized in the following sections.

This 3rdInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change uplifted with more than 70 oral presentations by researchers, scientists, professors, industry delegates and more than 10 poster participants around the globe. OMICS Group International has taken the privilege of felicitating Earth Science-2014 Organizing Committee Members, Editorial Board Members of the supported Journals and Keynote Speakers who supported for the success of this event.

Earth Science-2014is known for uplifting the future of geosciences by encouraging students and fellow researchers to present their work through Poster Presentations and Young Research Forum. Students participated with great zeal and the best posters were awarded for their efforts and outstanding contribution to the food science research. The best poster awardees were:Nina Pourhassan Zenoz,Universit de Sherbrooke, Canada,Laura Delgado Balbuena, CINVESTAV, Biotecnologa y Bioingeniera, Mexico andNitin Lahkar,Dibrugarh University, India.

Last but not the leastOMICS GroupInternational Conferences wishes to acknowledge with its deep sincere gratitude to all the supporters from the Editorial Board Members of our Open Access Journals, Keynote speakers, Honorable guests, Valuable speakers, Poster presenters, students, delegates and special thanks to theMedia partnersfor their promotion to make this event a huge success.

With the enormous feedback from the participants and supporters of 3rdInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, OMICS Group Conferences is glad to announce its4thInternational Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change(Earth Science-2015) event from June 15-17, 2015 at Alicante, Spain.

Past ReportsGallery Petrochemistry-2014

OMICS Groups2ndWorld Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineeringat Embassy Suites Las Vegas, USA during October 27-29, 2014 was organized with a focus on Critical Review on Unlocking Energy through Innovation, Technology and Capabilitywas a great success where eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions made their resplendent presence and addressed the gathering.

Petrochemistry-2014 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various newfangled topics related to the field of Energy.

Petrochemistry-2014 Organizing Committee would like to thank the Moderator of the conference,Dr. J C Jones, Kazakh British Technical University, Kazakhstan who contributed a lot for the smooth functioning of this event.

OMICS Group International would like to convey a warm gratitude to all the Honorable guests and Keynote Speakers of Petrochemistry-2014:

Davis L. Ford, University of Texas at Austin, USA

Ashok Kumar Ray, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, India

Mileva Radonjic, Louisiana State University, USA

Bushra Al-Duri, University of Birmingham, UK

Chen Zhonghong,China University of Petroleum, China

OMICS Group, on behalf of the conference, congratulates theBest Poster awardeesfor their outstanding performance and appreciates all the participants who put their efforts in poster presentations and sincerely wishes them success in future endeavors. We would like to thank the Poster Competition JudgeDr.Grigoriy A Sereda, University of South Dakota, USA for his valuable time.

Best Poster Winners:

Boaz vander Plas, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands

Rongting Xu, China University of Petroleum, China

OMICS Group also took the privilege of felicitating Petrochemistry-2014Organizing Committee, Editorial Board MembersofJournal of Petroleum & Environmental BiotechnologyandJournal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology, Keynote Speakers, Chair and Co-Chairs and Moderator whose support made conference a great success.

With the enormous feedback from the participants and supporters of Petrochemistry-2014, OMICS Group Conferences is glad to announce

3rdWorld Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering

November 30-December 02, 2015 Atlanta, USA

Past ReportsProceedingsGallery Petrochemistry-2013

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineeringis an important exposition in the field of oil exploration and handling of oil resources all over the world. The conference took place during November 18-20, 2013 in the city of San Antonio, Texas in the midst of a large number of professionals from the energy sector.

The conference attracted the research community, universities and petroleum associations. 10 different tracks and 62 sessions were designed under the themeAn Insight into the Advanced Technologies in Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering.All the sessions, poster presentations invigorated the conference.

J Kenneth Wittle,from ElectroPetroleum, Inc., USA, presented a keynote talk onThe use of direct current treatment of paraffin plugging in oil wells: A case study. This was followed by another keynote session onPetrochemical feedstocks in a changing energy environmentbyMr. J Rick Fontenot, Lyondell Chemical Company, USA. Another two keynote speeches were given byDr.Anatoly K Khitrin, Kent State University, USA andDr. Philip Rutberg, Director of Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power RAS, Russia respectively.

Professors, Fellow researchers and students actively participated in the Poster presentations. OMICS congratulate all the participants for their outstanding efforts in the field of Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering.

We thank all the organizing committee members, participants, attendees, exhibitor and media partners for their generous support without which the conference would not have been possible.

Book mark your dates for 2ndWorld Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineeringwhich will be held duringOctober27-29, 2014 in Las Vegas, USA.

Past ReportsGallery

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28 Feb. 2016 

Seeking state efficiency



iol news pic cz Lynne Brown 5670INDEPENDENT MEDIA Minister of Public Enterprises Lynne Brown is keen to efficiently manage state-owned companies. Picture: Leon Lestrade

Johannesburg - PUBLIC Enterprises Minister Lynne Brown admits shes tempted to duck whenever state-owned enterprises, of which the biggest and some of the more controversial fall within her portfolio, are in the news.

While the stream of controversy has abated somewhat, the Transnet Spanish train debacle and lately the news that arms manufacturer Denel concluded a joint venture deal without getting the required approval from her and Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan has reignited a debate about the risks to the fiscus of some poorly managed enterprises and the question of state capture the undue influence of private individuals on procurement and appointment processes in some enterprises.

At the moment when people talk about SOEs the camera comes onto me, and I just want to duck, and I hope it goes onto (Water and Sanitation Minister) Nomvula (Mokonyane) or someone, Brown said this week.

Both State of the Nation Address and Budget speech have focused heavily on SOEs and the need to fix the dysfunctional ones before they drag the fiscus under water, to mobilise private capital to help the state complete its ambitious infrastructure plans and to rationalise or let go of the multitude that contribute little to the countrys development.

President Jacob Zuma said this would be done by implementing the recommendations of a review he commissioned in 2010 on SOEs.

Browns point, though, is that there are more than 700, falling under numerous departments and scattered across the three spheres of government, many with their own governing legislation.

While pundits had anticipated big news on the role for the private sector in SOEs in the Budget, all they got was the announcement that a merger between SAA and SA Express would be considered, with a view to possibly bringing a minority equity partner on board.

There is an enormous amount of work still to be done, however, before the state will be ready to fully implement the report on SOEs.

One area that needs urgent attention is governance who is appointed to board and management positions, by whom and through what process to limit the opportunity for these companies to be hijacked.

Brown argued its not always a clear-cut matter of wrongdoing.

In the Denel example, she said the onerous requirements of the Public Finance Management Act had been bypassed for some time by the company, until the new board took action.

Youve got to get a PFMA 54 application, a pre-approval, from me, then youve got to go to National Treasury and get the 51G, and then youve got to come back to me with both of those and Ive got to give you a PFMA 54. That whole process can exclude any other business, so what Denel has been doing is not getting those PFMA applications or getting them post-facto, she said.

She believed it had been a process problem, more than anything else, but she wanted to let the executives respond to the investigation and not muddy the waters herself in the meantime.

Part of the problem was that each new board wanted to sweep clean and do things differently.

I mean, I have Safcol (South African Forestry Company) theyve had 10 investigations before I appointed this board. And when they said, look, weve got to have another investigation I said, I dont want another investigation, I want you to look at all 10 investigations and tell me why you didnt act against any of those, Brown said.

There was also a need for a different lens in the board appointment process, which in many cases was done by individual ministers in the current system.

There was a belief that it goes to Luthuli House and then it goes to the Guptas and I dont know who else, and then it comes to the minister and the minister makes the decision, Brown said.



But I think, irrespective of who the players are outside, theres a big push for who gets onto the boards. Im relatively clear, if I wanted to appoint an executive I will appoint somebody with the capabilities. I want to employ electrical engineers in Eskom, I want people with fiduciary responsibilities. In a way its almost not worthwhile being on a board any longer, because you just become tainted with everything everybody throws at you.

The Department of Public Service and Administration was working on this question, which she hoped would come together in a Shareholder Management Bill.

Other areas of work included a framework for private sector participation, which was being done between her department and the Treasury, and the development of a filter to sift SOEs into categories that would help define which should remain under state control, which should be merged or cut loose and which could be opened to the private sector.

Because there were more than 700 entities ranging from commonage held in trust and companies like Safcol and diamond miner Alexkor which were subject to land claims, to big economic drivers like Eskom, it was a fiendishly complex process.

The filtering is going to have to be done initially by the officials and then theyll present it to us. Then well have to look at it as well as the interministerial committee. Thats the first part, Brown said.



Then, all of these things are governed by legislation of some sort or another. So all of that legislation will have to be repealed or amended. Then, if youre wanting mergers, thats a completely different kettle of fish.

Its a big reconfiguration and I think the state could oversee it, but were going to have to bring in the capability to turn it around.

Political Bureau

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